Revolution of 25 april 1974

   Refers to the events that began in the early morning hours of 25 April 1974, when the Armed Forces Movement (MFA) began military operations against the Estado Novo in the Lisbon area. Signals for action included the playing of two songs on a popular radio station's (Rádio Renascença) midnight program broadcast. The songs were Depois do Adeus and Grândola, Vila Morena. The latter song, sung on the record made by composer-singer José Afonso, had been banned by government censorship and was usually played only clandestinely. The military coup proceeded during the period from midnight to about 4:30 p.m. on the afternoon of 25 April, a rainy day, and met relatively little resistance from the Estado Novo's few remaining staunch defenders.
   Most of the drama was played out in the streets of Lisbon as MFA tanks, armored cars, and troops took positions and demanded the surrender of neutral or loyal forces. After Prime Minister Marcello Caetano had taken refuge in the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR) Carmo barracks, traditionally a place of sanctuary for government incumbents in previous military coup attempts, Caetano surrendered to the insurgent military forces. He was later flown to exile in Madeira, with President Américo Tómas, and then to Brazil. This date marks the end of the Estado Novo and the beginning of democratic Portugal. The 25th of April is an official national holiday.
   See also Revolution of Carnations.

Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. . 2014.

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